Rose's quintessential role in human culture may be intuited from its botanical name Rosa, which simply means "rose." While other botanical names describe a plant's characteristics or location of discovery, it seems roses need no such distinction.
For over 3,000 years, roses have been cultivated for food, medicine and beauty. Greece, China, Persia and Egypt were home to the earliest rose gardeners. Romans imported shiploads of Egyptian roses to adorn their lavish feasts, and used them for food and (most importantly) as a remedy for wine hangovers. The phrase sub rosa comes from the expectation that gossip shared under a banquet's rose swag would be kept secret. In other words, "What happens under the roses, stays under the roses."
Because of rose's saucy reputation, early Christians shunned the flower along with Roman indulgence. Later, Middle Age monastery gardens used roses for their excellent nutrition and medicine. Prayer beads were made of rosewood or a paste of rose petals-- hence the name rosary.
Though colonists encountered native roses when they arrived in North America, they brought numerous species with them. William Penn added eighteen English roses to his garden. In his Book of Physic for Quaker settlers, he mentions roses many times for food and medicinal use. Author Claire Shaver Haughton imagines his recipe entitled "To Comfort Ye Brains" was a remedy to soothe homesickness.
Roses as Food
Roses are a delicious food. All roses are edible, and the petals and hips (berry-like fruit) are the most popular parts for consumption. Rosehips are extremely high in vitamin C. When England's food and drug imports were cut off during World War II, England organized "Operation Rose" to distribute tons of England's dog rose hips annually. The government produced rosehips syrup and capsules to prevent malnutrition, and it was used as medicine in England's hospitals.
This November in western NY, I have enjoyed eating our invasive multiflora rose hips (Rosa multiflora). After a frost or two, they taste like sweet strawberries; just spit out the seeds. Some rosehips are tougher and more mealy-- best for simmered teas and syrups. This herbal syrup recipe can be tweaked to include just 2-3 oz rosehips, 1 cup of honey and water.
In the summer, rose petals are a delicate addition to salads or cooked dishes. Their flavor varies greatly depending on the species; though i prefer the aromatic varieties, use what you have available. Fresh or dried petals make a lovely tea.
Roses as Medicine
In the 1600s, English herbalist Nicholas Culpeper wrote that rose preparations are excellent for "humoring human aches and ouchings." Like North America's native people, today's herbalists turn to the rose family for astringency. Astringents reduce inflammation and improve the integrity of mucous membranes by tightening and toning tissue. Their tannins bind proteins together, reducing leakiness or looseness. Rose petal tea or tincture is a gentle gargle for bleeding gums, mouth sores, and sore throat. It can also help to heal gastrointestinal inflammation, and soothes sunburn and skin inflammation when applied topically.
For the cardiovascular system, rose's antioxidants and tannins can improve the health of vasculature, reduce heart palpitations, and help to lower high blood pressure. Ffibrous pectins in the fruit support healthy cholesterol levels and gut flora.
As one might guess from its Valentine's Day popularity, roses have traditionally been used to support the emotional heart. According to herbalist Kiva Rose, “Perhaps the most remarkable aspects of this flower are found in its ability to affect the heart and spirit. Long praised for its anti-depressant qualities and ability to open the heart, it has been used across the world to raise the spirits and heal broken hearts." The scent alone is enough to calm and uplift.
Cultivation & Wild-Harvest
Though North America is home to twenty-six native rose species, most of the thousands of rose cultivars are non-native. These roses can be tricky to grow, prone to disease and pests. However, our native roses are much more resilient in their native ecosystem, and there is renewed interest in growing these species. If you plan to consume roses, be sure to use plants that have not been sprayed with pesticides.
Identifying wild roses: Wild roses have five white or pink petals, while garden cultivars may have many more petals. All rose flowers have a single thick pistol (female part) in the middle, surrounded by many stamens (male part). Rose leaves are serrated and alternate up the stem. Look for thorns and viney canes.
De la Foret, Rosalee. Alchemy of Herbs. 2017.
Krohn, Elise. http://wildfoodsandmedicines.com/rosehips
Rose, Kiva. "Rambling the River: My Love Affair with the Wild Rose". 2008.
Shaver Haughton, Claire. Green Immigrants. 1978.
Herbal Writing & Recipes
For educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
Holistic medicine doesn't attack a disease—it supports a whole person.
I am often asked questions such as, "What is a good herb for sleep?" or "Do you recommend turmeric for joint pain?" The answer to these questions is always the same: "Depends!"
For any ailment or imbalance, there is a slew of herbs that a google search deems helpful. However, each herb possesses unique qualities, and will help different individuals and symptoms. Around the world, traditional medicine has developed excellent methods of matching herbs to individuals. Indian Ayurvedic medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) involve identifying symptom patterns in the body. When an herb's qualities and actions are also understood, we can more effectively match plants to people.
Example 1: Ginger and peach leaf are two digestion aids. However, ginger is warming, drying, and circulation-stimulating. Peach leaf is cooling and moistening. If a pregnant woman with morning sickness is flushed and overheated, giving her ginger is probably a poor choice. However, cooling, soothing peach leaf is specifically indicated for this woman's symptoms, and is commonly used during pregnancy.
Example 2: A thin individual with poor circulation, constipation, dry skin and a racing mind is experiencing vata imbalance, according to Ayurveda. Vata is characterized by patterns of coldness and dryness throughout the body. If an individual simply takes a laxative for constipation, they will ease one symptom, but the imbalance will go unaddressed. However, using warming spices, plenty of healthy oils topically and in foods, and gentle exercise can help "warm and moisten" the body, moving this individual towards balance.
Example 3: An individual is experiencing fatigue yet difficulty sleeping, poor appetite, high levels of stress, and dizziness. They are likely experiencing "Qi deficiency," according to TCM. While they could take a medication to help with dizziness, they would be missing an opportunity to rest and nourish their depleted adrenals, helping to heal the root of the problem. A more effective approach may include abstaining from coffee, turning off electronic devices at 8pm to encourage relaxation, morning meditation, and taking ashwagandha root to replenish the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathoadrenal system (thus helping digestion, sleep imbalance and more).
This fall, I look forward to teaching a 5-week class through Hamburg and Orchard Park Continuing Education programs, entitled “Herbal Medicine for Body Type.” We will borrow from Ayurveda, TCM and traditional western medicine to identify our own body’s tendencies. We will use our senses to determine what an herb’s effects might be in the body. (For example, bitter herbs are cooling digestive stimulants. Sour herbs often tone and tighten tissue). We will discuss a number of herbs in-depth, learning which body types/states they are most appropriate for. All plants discussed can be easily grown or sustainably wild-harvested in western NY. I look forward to learning more alongside students as we discuss this material!
pictured: Valerian (Valeriana officinalis), Gong Garden, Fredonia NY
First of all, do you see the Muppety resemblance?
In my opinion, bee balm (Monarda spp.) is an underused gem in the herbal world. There are roughly 16 species of Monarda, all native to the US and Canada. Common names include wild oregano, wild bergamot, Oswego tea, horsemint and more. You may have seen bee balm growing in home gardens, or for sale at a local nursery-- and for good reason. As one might surmise from its common name, bee balm is an excellent supporter of pollinators like bees, butterflies, hummingbirds, and hummingbird moths. Its bright, showy flowers make it a superstar in the native garden.
Blossom color varies depending on the species; Monarda didyma (pictured) is a taller plant with striking red blooms. Monarda fistulosa has lavender-colored petals, while Monarda punctata has stunning spotted flowers highlighted by white or pink upper leaves. Look for M. punctata, M. fistulosa and more at Lockwood's Garden Center in Hamburg, NY.
Monarda was named after a 16th-century Spanish physician named Nicolas Monardes. Monardes is credited for writing the first herbal medicine book about plants of the New World. The title of his seminal work translates to "Joyful News out of the New Found World". Interestingly, Monardes never set foot in the Americas. He learned about these New World herbs on the docks of Seville, talking with merchants, soldiers, government officials, missionaries and women returning to Spain.
Monardes' informants undoubtedly learned much about Monarda from America's native people. it was used medicinally by the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), Hopi, Blackfoot, Cherokee, Menominee, Ojibwa, Winnebago and more. Their uses for Monarda are still practiced today.
Like many other mint family plants, Monarda leaves and flowers are deliciously aromatic. According to clinical herbalist Rosalee de la Foret, "All [Monardaspecies] be used interchangeably, with the taste of the plant giving us insight into its potency. Generally, the spicier the plant, the more potent it is." Monarda fistulosa, M. punctata, M. menthifolia, and M. didyma are the most common species used medicinally. How convenient that several of these are common garden varieties!
Like other aromatic herbs, Monarda's essential oils support healthy digestion, easing bloating, cramping, and other discomforts. Bee balm is also an excellent supporter during cold and flu season. Hot Monarda tea can loosen congestion in the upper respiratory tract, and Monarda tea or honey can soothe a sore throat.
Aromatic plants are also antimicrobial. Both Monarda and thyme (cousins in the mint family) contain high concentrations of thymol, an effective antibacterial agent used in oral care products. Drinking Monarda tea can ease mouth infections, or simply freshen the breath. Bee balm is also strongly antifungal. Internally, it is highly effective for candida overgrowth and vaginal yeast infections. For topical infections, de la Foret recommends applying the tea to infected areas, as well as taking the tincture or tea internally.
Herbalist Matthew Wood points out that, like its relative lemon balm, Monarda is a gentle nervous system relaxant. Wood recommends it for those experiencing anxiety or nervousness.
Use bee balm any way you like! It's delicious and safe for regular use. Try a making hot or iced tea, Infused vinegar or honey, tincture, or infused oil or witch hazel for topical use. The dried herb in an excellent and native culinary spice.
What is my favorite herb-infused vinegar I've ever made? Bee balm leaf + flower! Not only is it deliciously aromatic, but using red Monarda didyma results in a stunning magenta vinegar-- even if the flowers are the minority of your plant material. Here is a simple recipe for Herb Infused Vinegar.
Are bee balm cultivars safe to use? In my experience, if the bee balm plant smells delicious and potent, it is fine to use internally. This is not the case for cultivars of all medicinal plants, such as yarrow. (I do not use colorful yarrow cultivars internally due to higher concentrations of an unsavory alkaloid).
Use Monarda in moderation if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Bee balm enjoys consistent moisture and part-sun to full-sun exposure, though I have seen it thrive in part-shade. It is prone to mildew, and some species and cultivars are more prone than others. In my experience, M. didymaholds out much better than M. fistulosa-- but both are worth having in my garden.
When I start seeing signs of mildew, I simply cut back the tall stalks and use the soft aerial parts for food and medicine. I toss the tough central stalks and mildewy leaves into the compost. Like other mint family members, your Monarda will leaf out again relatively quickly, if it is happy. The new growth will hopefully be mildew free-- at least for awhile. According to Seattle Times garden writer Valerie Eston, growing Monarda in the moist soil it prefers results in less mildew, ironically.
de la Foret, Rosalee. http://www.herbalremediesadvice.org/bee-balm.html
Easton, Valerie. "Bee balm, bergamot or horsemint; it’s all pretty and healing." Seattle Times. July 2, 2011.
Erichsen-Brown, Charlotte. Medicinal and Other Uses of North American Plants. 1979.
Rose, Kiva. "Monarda." http://bearmedicineherbals.com/monarda.html
Wood, Matthew. The Book of Herbal Wisdom.
"Nicolas Monardes." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicol%C3%A1s_Monardes
From Greek and Roman mythology to German Rosicrucians, St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) was believed to be a sacred herb of the sun. Its botanical name, Hypericum, comes from the Greek god Hyperion, father of the sun god Helios. In Rome, Hypericumwas burned at the Festival of Fires, the summer solstice ritual. On Midsummer Eve, Romans danced and sang around bonfires, offering St. John's Wort garlands to the flames and bidding Helios to continue blessing the earth with sunlight. In colonial America, Rosicrucians fleeing persecution continued this ceremony. The Pennsylvania Dutch also believed in the herb's power to "discipline the Devil on Midsummer's Eve" (Haughton, 351).
As the Christian Church became interested in controlling pagan rituals, summer solstice was deemed St. John the Baptist's birthday. Thus, the Feast of Fires became St. John's Feast, and Hypericum adopted St. John's name as well.
It is no wonder that St. John's Wort has been associated with the sun. Its bright yellow flowers bloom in early summer, and the plant prefers full sun exposure. When Hypericumleaves and flowers are held up to the light, one can see small translucent circles that look like small suns. When one has found the Hypericum species most commonly used for medicine-- Hypericum perforatum-- some of these tiny circles are filled with a dark red medicinal oil. (Observe the tiny dots on the petals above). When a leaf or flower is crushed and rolled between the fingers, red or purple oil streaks are left on the skin. Check out this site for more info about identifying St. John's Wort.
Hypericum perforatum is a common wild plant in New York State. As an abundant non-native species, my conscience feels at ease about harvesting-- especially since removing leaves and flowers does not kill the plant.
While St. John's Wort's uses are numerous, the herb is most popularly used internally as an antidepressant. In Germany, St. John's Wort is prescribed twenty times more frequently than pharmaceuticals for depression. This is due to its effectiveness and relatively fewer side effects (Duke and Foster). It is a gentle sedative and antispasmodic, helping some to ease insomnia and anxiety.
St. John's Wort has notable pain-relieving and healing properties, particularly for the nervous system. It is used to support neuralgia, sciatica, and healing after nerve damage. Externally, the leaves and flowers are infused into oil for healing wounds, bruises, and burns-- even sunburn. Interestingly, St. John's Wort may also cause sun sensitivity in some. This photosensitizing property has been used in cancer treatment: cancer cells are exposed to hypericin oil, and then exposed to sunlight to induce cancer cell death.
Finally, St. John's Wort has been studied extensively for its antiviral properties. In vitro, St. John's Wort's constituents have shown antiviral activity against strains of the flu, Herpes simplex 1 and 2, and many more. It is used internally and topically during Herpes outbreaks, including cold sores.
Though some companies extract and sell one St. John's Wort constituent-- hypericin oil-- studies indicate that other chemicals in the herb are also medicinal. This is one of many examples of what we lose when we isolate one plant constituent for simplicity and ease, rather than working with plants in their whole form.
St. John's Wort may be herbal medicine's biggest culprit for herb-drug and herb-herb interactions. Its effect on the liver may change the rate of drug metabolism, among other effects. Medscape is one online source offering a list of drug interactions. I recommend consulting a practitioner before combining St. John's Wort with pharmaceuticals or other herbs. Most US doctors do not learn about medicinal plants in their training. An herbalist can provide more detailed information to share with your doctor about St. John's Wort.
Bone, Kerry and Simon Mills. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. 2nd edition. 2013.
Duke, James and Steven Foster. Peterson's Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. 2014.
Haughton, Claire Shaver. Green Immigrants. 1978.
Hoffman, David. Medical Herbalism. 2003.
A little history
Before Europeans came to North America, the dandelion we know so well- Taraxacum officinalis- was non-existent here. (There is a rare dandelion native to California,Taraxacum californicum). Common dandelion is likely native to Asia, where it is still an important remedy in Chinese Medicine. Dandelions had spread throughout Europe before written history began. The entire plant is edible, and there are records of its use as food and medicine by the Greeks, Romans, and Anglo-Saxon tribes.The Celts may have been the first to ferment the blossoms, making dandelion wine. In Japan, over 200 dandelion cultivars are used as ornamental plants. Japanese florists use white, orange, black, and copper varieties of the flower in their arrangements.
Dandelion's common name derives from the leaves' jagged appearance. The Normans called it dent de lion, or "lion's tooth." English speakers twisted the name into what we know today. The plant's botanical name, however, reflects its long history of medicinal use. The genus name comes from the Greek taraxos for "disorder"—and akos for "remedy." The species name, officinale, refers to its widely accepted use in medicine.
Indeed, dandelion was an important plant for the Puritans migrating to New England. So why wasn't it included in colonial accounts of horticulture in the 1600s? According to Claire S. Haughton's Green Immigrants, "The dandelion was not an economic plant, but a common green for the stewpot, a 'dosing herb.' And so its seeds were among those each woman was expected to take with her for the family's garden plot." Though much of written history documents trade and financial dealings, dandelion serves as a reminder that a plant's (or person's!) value does not necessarily depend on their monetary contribution to society.
After forests were cut, little dandelion fruits traveled like Mary Poppins via fuzz umbrellas to newly cleared areas. Garden space was no longer devoted to this wild, readily available plant.
Dandelion leaf is bitter-- more so as the season progresses. Bitterness has been called a lost flavor in American culture. As herbal medicine teacher CoreyPine Shane points out, "Beer and coffee are our last remaining bitters. And when you add cream and sugar to coffee, you lose the bitterness." In fact, we are losing more than flavor when we exclude bitterness. Tasting bitterness stimulates salivation, gastric secretions, and intestinal peristalsis. Bitterness can also stimulate secretion of bile for proper digestion of fats. Healthy digestion improves nutrient absorption, and has even been shown to improve immunity and mood (Romm).
Dandelion leaf is also used to remove excess fluids from the body. According to David Winston's Medical Herbalism, "Dandelion leaf is a powerful diuretic, with an action comparable to that of the drug furosemide. The usual effect of a drug that stimulates kidney function is loss of vital potassium from the body, which can aggravate a cardiovascular problem... Dandelion leaf, however, is not only an effective diuretic, but also one of the best natural sources of potassium. It is thus an ideally balanced remedy."
If you aren't looking for this diuretic effect, no problem. Skip the large doses of tincture (alcohol extract) and use it like the highly nutritious food that it is. Add some fresh dandelion leaves to your salad or stew, mixed with other veggies.
The root of dandelion is sweeter and richer than the leaf. Just like burdock root, dandelion root is an excellent source of inulin, a prebiotic. Prebiotics are complex, fibrous carbohydrates that pass to our intestines only partially digested. Our beneficial gut flora are nourished as they finish the job.
Dandelion root is a lovely liver supporter. A happy liver can promote effective digestion, hormone balancing and healthy skin. Herbalists have also used the root to ease arthritis symptoms. It may help by reducing pressure in the joints by removing excess fluid, increasing nutrient absorption, and/or modulating inflammation (de la Foret).
Dandelion root makes a tasty, caffeine-free "coffee substitute." During the Civil War, southerners used herbs like dandelion and yaupon holly while coffee and other imports were cut off. For simple instructions for roasting and simmering your dandelion root beverage, visit this LearningHerbs webpage.
Before using dandelion medicinally, talk with a practitioner if you are taking a medication or other herbs. Be sure to harvest in chemical-free lawns and fields.
Lawns, Gardens, and Farming
Though not native, dandelions offer benefits for gardens and agriculture. Haughton writes, "[Dandelion's] long taproot is nature's way of aerating the ground for the short grass roots, thereby encouraging greener lawns and greater beauty. It also brings up from the depths elements that are not available to shorter-rooting plants." Interestingly, dandelion flowers also exude ethylene gas at sunset-- the same gas given off by ripening fruit. Dandelions have been used in orchards to increase the rate of ripening.
Finally, herbalist Rosalee de la Foret makes an excellent point in her new book,The Alchemy of Herbs: "Because this is such a delicious and medicinal plant, it completely confounds me that so many people despise it. Instead of rushing out with their harvesting tools to enjoy this free food and medicine, they spray harmful chemicals to kill them. Many of those herbicides are known to promote cancer, poison our soils and waters, and kill countless birds and bees." If we are going to rid our lawns of dandelions, may we consume every last one!
de la Foret, Rosalee. The Alchemy of Herbs. 2017.
Romm, Aviva. Herbs for Digestion: The Bitters. Natural MD Radio.
Winston, David. Medical Herbalism. 588-89.
In hunting for the origin of witch hazel's name, I expected a juicy story about a witch named Hazel. Instead, the name comes from a traditional practice called "dowsing." Dowsing was a method of locating good sources of groundwater using Y-shaped branches. The name is believed to have come from wych, an old Anglo-Saxon word for "bend," and the Middle English wicke for "lively." Indeed, the dowsing stick is said to point downward towards the groundwater below, as though having a mind of its own. The Mohegans may have been the first to show English settlers to dowse.
It seems fitting that witch hazel is commonly found along the banks of running water. In western New York, it is rare to hike along a creek without spotting this shrub. Witch hazel's abundance in the northeastern US surely led to American Distilling's location in East Hampton, Connecticut. They are the world's largest witch hazel producer, with products like Dickinson’s. Today, they are still supplied by local wild harvesters.
Witch hazel is one of the few medicinal plants approved by the FDA as an ingredient in non-prescription medications. This is not because witch hazel is safer or more effective than other medicinal plants (FDA approvals are heavily influenced by money and politics, often at the expense of long-term wellness and public health). But, it certainly is an effective astringent.
What exactly is an astringent? Astringent plants often contain tannins. If you have ever tasted strong black tea or an unripe apple, you are familiar with the dry "pucker" sensation of astringency. Tannins bind proteins, tightening and toning tissue. When astringents come into contact with a cut on our skin, it can help to bind the broken tissue back together, and reduce inflammation. I use astringents more gentle than witch hazel for inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, or to tone other body systems. They may be gargled to reduce inflammation in the mouth and throat.
Astringents are also drawing. They can pull wooden slivers or poison ivy's urishiol oil away from the skin-- though I would wash a poison ivy-affected area with strong soap as soon as possible. Those with acne-prone skin that is oily may apply witch hazel to reduce inflammation. (Remember-- diet and lifestyle will do more for acne than anything applied topically.) The Osage people used witch hazel bark to treat skin sores. The Potawatomi steamed witch hazel over rocks in sweat lodges to ease sore muscles. The Hadenosawnee (Iroquois) brewed a tea to treat coughs and dysentery. Witch hazel has been applied to bruises, varicose veins, and hemorrhoids as well.
Drinking witch hazel bark tea has generally fallen out of favor. The tannin content-- while medicinal when used properly-- can be irritating to the stomach. In rare cases, internal use may cause liver damage. Exernally, witch hazel is widely considered safe.
The beauty of making our own witch hazel bark extract is that we can avoid making a noticeable impact on the plants. Though I am impressed by how much wild-harvesting information American Distilling offers on their website, industrial witch hazel is made by cutting down whole trunks. Instead, we can snip just a few twigs from each plant. We can think like a farmer, and prune. Which twigs are being shaded out? These are the least useful to the plant, and can be snipped first.
Click here for a Wild Crafted Witch Hazel recipe.
Mandriote, John-Manuel. The Mysterious Past and Present of Witch Hazel. The Atlantic. Nov 2012.
Tilgner, Sharol. Herbal Medicine: From the Heart of the Earth. 2009.
"Tulasi is a gentle female energy, a sweet little goddess, and should be treated like the queen she is – the queen of medicinal plants. For she is also a plant of power, a powerful lady, a friend, a physician and an ally." -Swami Vibhooti Saraswati
Tulsi, or Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum/sanctum) is an herb to consider for your garden or stoop containers this spring. Tulsi is a secret weapon of sorts for many herbalists and tea companies. I admit that the taste of some herbs is less wonderful than their properties. However, the intoxicatingly sweet fragrance of holy basil is enough to convert any herb skeptic.
Tulsi is native to India, and is cultivated widely throughout the middle east and southeast Asia. Hindus believe Tulsi is the goddess Lakshmi manifested as a plant, possessing great spiritual power. Many Hindu tales are told about tulsi. According to one story, "No amount of gold could outweigh Krishna's power, but a single Tulsi leaf placed on the pan in loving devotion tilted the scale" (Organic India). Today, Indian families still grow tulsi in a clay pot in their home or garden. Many use its leaves to make tea, while others simply honor its sacredness and grow it for protection.
Holy basil is closely related to the sweet basil many Americans know and love (Ocimum basilicum). However, tulsi possesses unique properties that sweet basil does not. In Indian Ayurvedic medicine, tulsi is a rasayana-- an herb that supports longevity and excellent health. In western lingo, studies confirm that tulsi is indeed an adaptogen, supporting energy levels and moderating the body's stress response. Studies have demonstrated its ability to slow the release of corticosterone levels. Keeping these stress hormones at bay helps our body stay out of chronic "fight or flight" mode. This can help to normalize circulation, digestion, weight, immunity, and more.
Due to their support and nourishment of many body systems, adaptogens are commonly paired with chemotherapy and radiation cancer treatments. Adaptogens can offset side-effects of treatment, such as nausea and immune suppression. Tulsi offers the added benefit of radiation protection for the liver, as demonstrated by research. Check out my related article on Fu Zheng Pei Ben here. Talk to your doctor and an herbalist before using adaptogens with cancer treatments.
Like many mint family plants, tulsi's volatile oils support both digestion and mental clarity/relaxation. Studies demonstrate its neuroprotective properties, and many herbalists use tulsi to improve memory and depression. It can also used as an antimicrobial expectorant for bronchial congestion, colds and more.
Lucky for us, holy basil is as easy to grow as other basils. Western NYers will find tulsi seedlings at Lockwood's Greenhouse for the first time this year! Seeds can also be found at Lockwoods, or online for those who live far away.
Holy basil is a highly safe herb. Enjoy its flavor casually in summer beverages and cocktails, or use the tincture, tea, infused honey, etc. daily for the benefits described above.
According to several publications, tulsi's liver-supportive properties may speed up CYP-450 activity. This would also speed the excretion of medications processed via this pathway. If you are taking a medication, talk to your doctor before using tulsi medicinally. Using a few leaves or flowers to occasionally flavor your beverage is safe.
There's rosemary; that's for remembrance. Pray you love, remember.'
-Ophelia, Shakespeare's Hamlet
I confess-- I am not a nurturing houseplant owner. I bring a handful of potted herbs indoors each fall in hopes of cooking with them throughout the chilly months. My intention is to bring them back outside in the spring, alive. Right now, my catnip, thyme and ashwagandha are languishing from lack of water, sun, and/or nutrients. (I just got up and watered them. Relax.) However, the rosemary plant (Rosmarinus officinalis) looks as perfect now as the day it came inside. I regularly rub the leaves for the intoxicating scent, and have been using it in pizza crust and stew.
Rosemary's genus name, Rosmarinus, is latin for "dew of the sea." This may refer to its pale blue or purple flowers. It may also point to rosemary's preference for the sandy soils and hot sun near the Mediterranean, where it is native. Its species name, officinalis, is given to plants widely recognized for their medicinal value. Though we generally think of cooking with rosemary for its flavor, there is deeper wisdom in the tradition of adding it to savory meat dishes. Due to its essential oil profile, rosemary is one of the more potent antioxidant and antimicrobial herbs. It is an excellent natural preservative. Into the 1900s, it was customary to burn rosemary in French hospitals to prevent the spread of infection (Grieve).
As with many aromatic mint family plants, rosemary is a fine supporter of both the digestive and nervous systems. Its oils have a stimulating effect on the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, helping to move waste and gas through. Rosemary also supports digestion by stimulating the secretion of bile from the gallbladder. This helps to ensure proper digestion of fats (Smith).
Indeed, stimulating may be the most common descriptor for rosemary in herbal medicine. It is a circulatory stimulant, and may reduce capillary fragility (Winston, 380). Rosemary's inclusion in winter stews is a wise choice for its support of peripheral circulation. Its stimulating effect on the nervous system and cerebral circulation helps to explain rosemary's ability to lift mood and improve memory (Winston, 380). Click here for a study on rosemary's volatile oils and their effects on cognitive performance and mood.
Rosemary's reputation for enhancing memory may explain its time-honored role in commemorating life's milestones. Rosemary has traditionally been added to bridal bouquets. Wedding guests have been given sprigs as a keepsake. Rosemary has been added to couples' wine as a symbol of keeping their vows. Across cultures, rosemary is a symbol of remembrance of those who have died. Ancient Egyptians laid sprigs of rosemary on tombs and coffins. Shakespeare's Juliette was gifted rosemary upon her passing. During Australia's Anzac Day celebrating ancestors, it is still common to wear rosemary sprigs (Grieve; Monterrey).
Rosemary's antispasmodic and circulation-enhancing nature explain its topical use for relief of muscle, joint, and nerve pain. In Europe, it has also been used to ease headaches. Click here for a rosemary-infused oil recipe.
The notable antioxidant activity in rosemary may explain research demonstrating its anticancer properties. In a study of laboratory animals, adding rosemary to the diet "reduced the incidence of experimentally caused mammary tumors by 47%." Skin cancers were also inhibited using a topical application (Winston, 380). In Herbal Therapy and Supplements, Winston and Kuhn recommend applying rosemary topically as a skin cancer preventative (380). Though this is no replacement for proper sun protection, perhaps rosemary oil can be used alongside aloe vera after we've spent time outdoors.
Rosemary's stimulating nature makes it an excellent supporter of menstrual discomfort. However, medicinal doses may be unsafe during pregnancy. Enjoy whole rosemary leaves in food when pregnant, in moderation.
Grieve, Maude. A Modern Herbal. 1931. www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/r/rosema17.html
Materia Medica Resource. "Rosemary." https://materiamedicaresource.wordpress.com/2013/07/28/rosemary-2/
Monterrey Spice Company. www.herbco.com/t-rosemary-article.aspx
Smith, Ed. Therapeutic Herb Manual. Williams: 2011. pp. 61-62.
Winston, David and Merrily Kuhn. Herbal Therapy and Supplements: A Scientific and Traditional Approach. pp. 380-381.
Burdock (Arctium lappa) is a common weed throughout much of the US. Its slightly fuzzy, elephant ear-like leaves distinguish this plant throughout most of its two-year lifespan. However, both its common and botanical names focus on its unique fruit and seed pods. The genus name Arctium comes from the Greek arktos, or "bear." Its species name, lappa, comes from the latin lappare or "to seize." Indeed, the rough, hairy fruit (bur) looks like a fuzzy bear, and will cling to anything passing by to spread its seed. Swiss engineer Georges de Mestral credited burdock's stubborn adherence to his socks as the inspiration for his renowned invention: Velcro.
There are numerous culinary uses of burdock. The Japanese call it gobo, and use the slightly-sweet taproot fresh or cooked, as one might use carrots. Growing up in western NY, older Sicilian men called the stems gardooni. Hunting gardooni each spring is an event, and folks are careful not to share their harvesting spots. My grandpa took his bagful to grandma, who stripped the "skin" off the stems, boiled them, and fried them in a flour and egg batter. They may be eaten raw or cooked. Some say they taste like asparagus.
Medicinally, burdock is one my favorite gentle, nourishing tonics. According to David Hoffman's Medical Herbalism, "In general, burdock will move the body to a state of integration and health, improving indicators of system imbalance such as skin problems and dandruff" (528). Its stimulation of the liver is likely involved in its skin-supportive nature. Dr. Sharol Tilgner notes that burdock gently "stimulates the liver, the gallbladder, the kidneys, the skin, digestion and the lymphatic system" (56).
According to Hoffman, burdock root is composed of 45-50% inulin. Inulin is a valuable prebiotic-- a complex sugar that does not get completely digested in the stomach or small intestine. Therefore, it serves as food for beneficial gut flora. Because inulin is slow to break down, inulin-containing foods are generally considered a fine choice for supporting healthy blood glucose levels. Stay tuned for a longer article about inulin.
Burdock makes a delicious tea, tincture, infused honey, syrup or vinegar. Harvest the root in the fall of the first year (now is a fine time!), or the spring of the second year. At both of these times, the plant will have only basal leaves-- not a tall flowering stalk. The taproot can be a challenge to dig; I find that a spade feels nicer than a trowel, but use what you have. Be sure to harvest in locations that have not been treated with lawn chemicals.
Burdock is highly safe for most people when used casually. Those taking medications should talk to their doctor before using burdock regularly (medicinally).
Mountain Rose Herbs. www.mountainroseherbs.com/products/burdock-root/profile
Hoffman, David. Medical Herbalism. 2003. pp. 528-529.
Tilgner, Dr. Sharol. Herbal Medicine: From the Heart of the Earth. 2009. second edition. pg. 56.
As a Spanish language student, I assumed that Goldenrod's botanical name (Solidago spp.) had something to do with the root sol-- the Spanish word for sun. If you live in a climate that's anything like western NY, you have enjoyed the yellow autumn blossoms of this genus along roadsides and other "edge" places. Quite sunny, indeed. However, the word actually comes from the latin soldago or soldare which means “to strengthen or make whole." This name kindly nudges us towards the plants' medicinal properties.
Perhaps those yellow blossoms can help us remember a body system goldenrod brilliantly supports: the urinary tract. (Well, now you'll never forget.) According to David Hoffman's Medical Herbalism, "As an anti-inflammatory urinary tract antiseptic, goldenrod may be helpful with cystitis, urethritis, and similar conditions affecting this system" (585). The plant is commonly used in Europe to treat bladder and lower urinary tract infections, and to prevent or treat kidney stones. These uses have been studied and approved by the European Scientific Cooperative on Phytomedicine (Braun, 489).
According to one study, patients utilizing a catheter were 40% less likely to experience an infection if taking an herbal blend including goldenrod, cranberry, birch, and Orthosiphon. A second study examined patients who were already experiencing infection. Those who took this herbal blend in tandem with antibiotics were 2.5 times less likely to experience a recurrent infection (Braun, 489).
Like dandelion, goldenrod is an effective diuretic without significantly disrupting electrolyte levels in the body. Due to this remarkable property, many practitioners consider these herbs safer than pharmaceutical diuretics (Braun, 488).
Goldenrod has less "sunny" uses as well. According to Hoffman, "Goldenrod is perhaps the first to consider in upper respiratory [congestion and inflammation], whether acute or chronic. This plant may also be used in combination with other herbs to treat influenza" (585). This is partly due to the plant's astringent, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticatarrhal (mucus-busting) properties. Lab studies demonstrate inhibitory effects on human fungal pathogens, including Candida and Cryptococcus spp. It has been shown to have "moderate" antibacterial effects as well (Braun, 489).
Though a tea can be made from the fresh flowers and leaves of any goldenrod species, many opt for a tincture due to the plant's bitterness. Make your own tincture using these instructions. The general adult dosage for goldenrod is the same as the example herb in this recipe (boneset). But, you may wish to consult an herbalist near you for a person-appropriate dosage. Talk to your doctor before combining goldenrod with any diuretic or blood pressure medication.
1.) Braun, Lesley and Marc Cohen. Herbs and Natural Supplements, Vol. 2: An Evidence-Based Guide. Elsevier: 2015. pp. 488-491.
2.) Hoffman, David. Medical Herbalism. Rochester, 2003. pg. 585.